The -va/ve ending has two roles.
It forms the
gerund or present participle
and the adverbial participle.
The latter, the adverbial participle,
is covered here.
When we need to modify the verb with another verb, the adverbial participle is
The second, modifying verb's stem has -va/ve
added to it, and now becomes something like an adverb.
For example, in this sentence: he came home crying,
the underlined participle behaves a bit like a verb and a bit like an adverb.
It describes how he came home, so it's like an adverb; but it clearly ends
in -ing and so must have a verbal basis.
We can understand how these participles behave a little more like
adverbs by forcing the -ly on the end:
he came home cryingly.
This is totally articifical, but it may help, particularly in such sentences as
he came home hurridly, which is really a
Hunglish was of saying "he hurried home."
Here are some more examples. I am putting the Hunglish "-ly"
at the end of the adverbial participle that I am demonstrating.
he came hurriedly
mosolyogva mentem el
I went smiling(ly)
she came home crying(ly)
könyörögve nézett rám
he looked at me pleadingly
nevetve mentem be az iskolába
I went to school laughing(ly)
elkeseredve ültem le tanulni
bitterly I sat down to study
énekelve lépett be a szobába
she stepped into the room singing(ly)
When we use the adverbial participle as a predicative adjective,
we must not omit van.
az ajtó nyitva van
the door is open
az ablak zárva van
the window is closed
a szobám fűtve van
my room is heated
The root verbs in the above are, of course:
grow bitter, dispair
There exists an alternative form of the suffix:
These participles cannot used predicatively, they may form implicit sentences, though their form is not modern.
bemenvén a terembe, leültem
having entered the room, I sat down
My thanks to Ádám Czinege pointing out this usage